“Knowledge isn’t power until it is applied.”
― Dale Carnegie
The term “abs” refers to a pair of muscles that make up the rectus abdominis.
But to complete the full six-pack abs look, you must properly develop the other “core” muscles such as obliques, transversus abdominis (TVA), and serratus anterior.
How You Get Six-Pack Abs
You can get six-pack abs using the following two steps:
Reduce body fat percentage.
Perform proper core and abs exercises that target the rectus abdominis and other core muscles.
You might have tirelessly done abs exercises in the past but your ab muscles never showed.
The answer is because all of your stomach fat was covering them.
Since losing fat can’t be specifically targeted on the body, you first have to decrease your overall body fat percentage.
Have you ever seen someone with six-pack abs that has fats in other parts of the body (arm, legs, etc.)?
That’s because your body has a preferential order for losing fat.
The last bit and most difficult fat to lose is typically in the mid to low section area of the body.
For abs to show, your body fat percentage must be below 15%.
Abs will become more defined when your body fat is below 10%.
There are many ways to measure body fat percentage, but the most cost-effective way is to use a caliper that has 1 to 2% error.
According to the fundamental of energy balance, the body can only lose weight (fat and muscle) over time if it’s in a calorie deficit.
This means the body has to spend more calories than it consumes.
But to lose primarily fat while preserving muscle, your protein consumption is proportional to your lean muscle mass.
The proper amount of daily macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) for “cutting” (losing fat while maintaining muscle) is uniquely based on your body composition.
Body fats aren’t equal because some are easier to lose than others.
There are two types of body fat, “normal” and “stubborn” fat.
Compared to stubborn fat, normal fat is much easier to lose because of the way the body metabolizes it for energy use.
When the body uses fat for energy, it produces a chemical called catecholamine.
This chemical binds to the receptor of fat cells and releases energy for the body to use.
There are two types of fat cell receptors, alpha and beta, that attach to catecholamine.
Because alpha receptors hinder fat metabolism while beta receptors promote it, hence the reason for normal (more beta receptors) and stubborn (more alpha receptors) fat.
Normal fat is usually in the arms, shoulders, chest, face, and legs.
Stubborn fat is typically located around the lower back and the stomach area, especially the lower part of abs and obliques.
How You Can Lose Stubborn Fat
To burn stubborn fat, the best solution is to do fasted exercises.
Because in fasted states, insulin levels are low and fat stores become the body’s primary source of energy, thus increasing the body’s ability to burn fat.
Because insulin inhibits burning fat (lipolysis and fat oxidation), therefore it’s more effective at burning fat when the body has low levels of insulin.
Do fasted exercises in the morning after more than eight hours since mealtime or later in the day with intermittent-fasting.
Exercising in a fasted state accelerates fat loss and weightlifting exercise is particularly effective according to research.
In addition, a fasted state increases blood flow in the abdominal region.
As a result, you burn more stubborn fat because more catecholamines can reach stubborn fat easier.
The Most Effective Ab and Core Exercises
The following abs and core exercises are the most effective for training the rectus abdominis and obliques.
Hanging Leg Lift
Captain’s Chair Leg Raise
Flat Bench Lying Leg Raise
Since abs muscles are small, they can recover quickly.
Two to three times of ab training per week is enough for building strong abdominal and oblique muscles!
Similar to other muscles, abs need progressive overload to grow.
To do that, incorporate weighted abs exercises.
My abdominal and core training workouts consist of three circuits of the following (after my heavy compound weightlifting exercises) with three to four minutes of rest in between each circuit.
- 10 reps of ab roller
- 20 reps of air bicycle
- 10 reps of hanging knee raise with 30-pound dumbbell
- 20 reps of mason twist with 20-pound medicine ball
- 10 reps of hanging straight leg raise
- 10 reps of cable crunch (140 pounds)
Similar to any weighted exercises, you should start with a comfortable weight.
Then gradually increase the weight as you get stronger to further strengthen your abs and core muscle groups.
Although heavy weightlifting exercises such as squats, deadlifts, and military press also target the core muscles, they alone are not enough to build strong muscles in the rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, and external obliques.
Getting six-pack abs requires work with proper abs and core exercises, but more importantly the proper amount of nutrients to achieve the body fat percentage for the abs to show!
The steps are simple and straightforward, but not easy.
It requires patience and persistence to get that elusive six-pack ab, but it’s well worth it!
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